OBJECTIVE

Newer medications offer more options for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. However, they come at considerable costs. We undertook a health economic analysis to better understand the value of adding two newer medications (exenatide and sitagliptin) as second-line therapy to glycemic control strategies for patients with new-onset diabetes.


RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis for the U.S. population aged 25–64. A lifetime analytic horizon and health care system perspective were used. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at 3% annually, and costs are presented in 2008 U.S. dollars. We compared three glycemic control strategies: 1) glyburide as a second-line agent, 2) exenatide as a second-line agent, and 3) sitagliptin as a second-line agent. Outcome measures included QALYs gained, incremental costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with each strategy.


RESULTS

Exenatide and sitagliptin conferred 0.09 and 0.12 additional QALYs, respectively, relative to glyburide as second-line therapy. In base case analysis, exenatide was dominated (cost more and provided fewer QALYs than the next most expensive option), and sitagliptin was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $169,572 per QALY saved. Results were sensitive to assumptions regarding medication costs, side effect duration, and side effect–associated disutilities.


CONCLUSIONS

Exenatide and sitagliptin may confer substantial costs to health care systems. Demonstrated gains in quality and/or quantity of life are necessary for these agents to provide economic value to patients and health care systems.

 

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the impact of a preconception counseling program tailored for teens with type 1 diabetes on cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes and to assess its cost-effectiveness.


RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

A total of 88 teens with type 1 diabetes from two sites were randomized into the READY-Girls (Reproductive-health Education and Awareness of Diabetes in Youth for Girls) intervention (IG) (n = 43) or standard care (SC) (n = 45) groups. During three diabetes clinic visits, IG subjects viewed a two-part CD-ROM, read a book, and met with a nurse. Program effectiveness was measured by knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding diabetes, pregnancy, sexuality, and preconception counseling. Assessments occurred at baseline, before and after viewing program materials, and at 9 months. Economic analyses included an assessment of resource utilization, direct medical costs, and a break-even cost analysis.


RESULTS

Age range was 13.2–19.7 years (mean ± SD 16.7 ± 1.7 years); 6% (n = 5) were African American, and 24% (n = 21) were sexually active. Compared with baseline and SC subjects, IG subjects demonstrated a significant group-by-time interaction for benefit and knowledge of preconception counseling and reproductive health: increasing immediately after the first visit (P < 0.001) and being sustained for 9 months (P < 0.05 benefits; P < 0.001 knowledge). For IG subjects, preconception counseling barriers decreased over time (P < 0.001), and intention and initiation of preconception counseling and reproductive health discussions increased (P < 0.001). Costs of adverse reproductive outcomes are high. Direct medical costs of READY-Girls were low.


CONCLUSIONS

READY-Girls was beneficial and effects were sustained for at least 9 months. This low-cost self-instructional program can potentially empower young women with type 1 diabetes to make well-informed reproductive health choices, adding little time burden or cost to their diabetes management.

 

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether evidence-based socioculturally adapted collaborative depression care improves receipt of depression care and depression and diabetes outcomes in low-income Hispanic subjects.


RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

This was a randomized controlled trial of 387 diabetic patients (96.5% Hispanic) with clinically significant depression recruited from two public safety-net clinics from August 2005 to July 2007 and followed over 18 months. Intervention (INT group) included problem-solving therapy and/or antidepressant medication based on a stepped-care algorithm; first-line treatment choice; telephone treatment response, adherence, and relapse prevention follow-up over 12 months; plus systems navigation assistance. Enhanced usual care (EUC group) included standard clinic care plus patient receipt of depression educational pamphlets and a community resource list.


RESULTS

INT patients had significantly greater depression improvement (≥50% reduction in Symptom Checklist-20 depression score from baseline; 57, 62, and 62% vs. the EUC group’s 36, 42, and 44% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively; odds ratio 2.46–2.57; P < 0.001). Mixed-effects linear regression models showed a significant study group–by–time interaction over 18 months in diabetes symptoms; anxiety; Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) emotional, physical, and pain-related functioning; Sheehan disability; financial situation; and number of social stressors (P = 0.04 for disability and SF-12 physical functioning, P < 0.001 for all others) but no study group–by–time interaction in A1C, diabetes complications, self-care management, or BMI.


CONCLUSIONS

Socioculturally adapted collaborative depression care improved depression, functional outcomes, and receipt of depression treatment in predominantly Hispanic patients in safety-net clinics.

 

OBJECTIVE

People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment but the mechanism is uncertain. Elevated glucocorticoid levels in rodents and humans are associated with cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine whether fasting cortisol levels are associated with cognitive ability and estimated lifetime cognitive change in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes.


RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

This was a cross-sectional study of 1,066 men and women aged 60–75 years with type 2 diabetes, living in Lothian, Scotland (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). Cognitive abilities in memory, nonverbal reasoning, information processing speed, executive function, and mental flexibility were tested, and a general cognitive ability factor, g, was derived. Prior intelligence was estimated from vocabulary testing, and adjustment for scores on this test was used to estimate lifetime cognitive change. Relationships between fasting morning plasma cortisol levels and cognitive ability and estimated cognitive change were tested. Models were adjusted for potential confounding and/or mediating variables including metabolic and cardiovascular variables.


RESULTS

In age-adjusted analyses, higher fasting cortisol levels were not associated with current g or with performance in individual cognitive domains. However, higher fasting cortisol levels were associated with greater estimated cognitive decline in g and in tests of working memory and processing speed, independent of mood, education, metabolic variables, and cardiovascular disease (P < 0.05).


CONCLUSIONS

High morning cortisol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes are associated with estimated age-related cognitive change. Strategies targeted at lowering cortisol action may be useful in ameliorating cognitive decline in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

 
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