OBJECTIVE

In this randomized controlled trial we evaluated the effect of registered dietitian–led management of diabetes on glycemic control and macronutrient intake in type 2 diabetic patients in primary care clinics in Taiwan and studied the association between changes in macronutrient intake and glycemic measures.


RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We recruited 154 adult patients with type 2 diabetes and randomly assigned them to a routine care control group (n = 79) or a registered dietitian–led intervention group (n = 75) who received on-site diabetic self-management education every 3 months over 12 months.


RESULTS

Over the 1-year period, neither the intervention group (n = 75) nor the control group (n = 79) had significant changes in A1C, whereas the intervention patients with poorly controlled baseline A1C (≥7%) (n = 56) had significantly greater improvements in A1C and fasting plasma glucose than the control subjects (n = 60) (–0.7 vs. –0.2%, P = 0.034; –13.4 vs. 16.9 mg/dl, P = 0.007) during the same period. We also found significant net intervention-control group differences in overall energy intake (–229.06 ± 309.16 vs. 56.10 ± 309.41 kcal/day) and carbohydrate intake (–31.24 ± 61.53 vs. 7.15 ± 54.09 g/day) (P < 0.001) in patients with poorly controlled A1C. Multivariable adjusted modeling revealed an independent association between changes in carbohydrate intake and A1C in the intervention group (n = 56; β = 0.10, SEM = 0.033, P = 0.004).


CONCLUSIONS

On-site registered dietitian–led management of diabetes can improve glycemic control in patients with poorly managed type 2 diabetes in primary care clinics in Taiwan. A reduction in carbohydrate intake may improve glycemic status.

 

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